BY: MELANIJA SHERDENKOVSKA
In this paper is reviewed Miyak architectural tradition in terms of migration and work of groups throughout Makedonia and the Balkan countries under the Ottoman rule. We follow the influence of Miak builders groups on the development and the criteria with which the objects were built and the development of aesthetic feeling among the local population, for further initiation the development of building and other art crafts, through active participation of the local population in building groups, but their further organization into groups too and own development of this activity. In this paper are established the foundations and the doctoral thesis is proven main hypothesis of the research – MIAK BUILDERS WERE ESSENTIAL FOUNDER OF BUILDING OF THE PROGRAMMING AND OBLIKOVNO DEFINED HOUSE IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA AND THE WESTERN PART OF ASIA MINOR.
In the analysis of building and building traditions in Makedonia and the Balkans, all authors agree that Miak region is the place from where the genesis pleiades masters – builders. Years of research on terrain, clearly guided for their particularly different way of building and relationship toward the building, at all. In the past, in all parts of Makedonia, village house has retained its utility, and was built by local craftsmen or the owner of the house, from the materials found in the nearest environment, free from most decorative items, except those created by the basic form or structural element. But, during visiting Miak villages, in the very first moment can be observed a special relationship to the house and building in general. Primordial relationship that the individual brings to the house, especially the relationship of master to the building, its integrity and each element, we can feel at every step.
In discussing for the building in this region enforce a conclusion that it is an extraordinary phenomenon that is deeply rooted in their being. Therefore we can talk about characteristics – a trait, skill, which in past centuries were transferred to the coming generations, mostly within the family. The essential gift for processing the stone and the wood, their logical connections in a stable structure, especially the sense of aesthetics in the applicable forms and constitution of the applied material was constantly refreshing and changed, adjusted to the needs and requirements. Solid and massive stone in the first or the first two levels, strongly opposes of the wood construction on the last level, closed, usually with dark wood. The basic form obtained by remarkably balanced relationship – a massive contrast and light, the light and dark, stone and wood, richly complemented by simple but effective detail, all of this creates a remarkably harmonious whole. This picture complements well crafted jamb of doors, processing of the windows, angle stone blocks, cantilevers and most picturesque element – withdrawal on the walls and withdrawal on the walls which are ending in a top side with arch.
But what most excited, is the adaptation of facilities, change the essential type, which is evident wherever we can follow the building of these masters. Climatic conditions, topography of the terrain, customs of the local population, often wishes of the developer was maximum respected, but all of it does not even slightly reduces the aesthetic values of the object. Contrarily, in any area they were created a different and according their peculiarities characteristic shape of the building, which interweave particularity of the place, apropos they shaped recognizable matrix of a given place, similar to the archetypal, which with minor modifications had satisfied the broad set of criteria for the quality housing. Permanent building their experiences, especially in the field of aesthetics, these builders in the last phase of their extensive activity, back to the basic forms and discarding the cantilevers, create impressive proportional prismatic buildings with square base and pyramidal roof. Masters builders, sublimating the centuries-old experience shaped a specific type of house, typical for this region and its after many things, specific way of life.
Reviewing the building tradition in this region, in some basic features, inevitably were intruded the conclusion of its peculiarity, respectively exclusiveness in relationship with the rural architecture in other parts. According to its functionality and aesthetic, these buildings almost regularly surpass the city’s architecture. This phenomenon of rooted building tradition and general artistic expression, in the activity and existence of this tribe, as will reveal further research, had the essential meaning in the development of building tradition in Makedonia and wider in the southern parts of the Balkans and Asia Minor.
The specific affinity of Miaks to construction, building and other art crafts indebted for the century acceptance and development of the Bogomil movement, leading to the dissolution of the restraints, imposed by the institutional Church, and with all of this releasing the personality and their highest creative and intellectual potentials.
Beginning from the XV century, rather from the victory of the Turks over the George Kastrioti and total conquest of Albania, Miaks are under constant pressure from the Albanian population. Very often were organized violence by Albanian groups over the Makedonian population, which until that time was settled deep into the territory of modern Albania. Also known is the terror of some pashas of this region, such as Ali Pasha Janinski and Ali Pasha Tepeliniski. Since then begin migration of the whole families who settled in the Reka region, but because the violence of Albanian groups, which often have happened here, went deep into the territory of Makedonia, Kosovo, in Aegean Makedonia and Bulgaria. Migration has become more common in the XVIII century. In Makedonia they settled villages Papradishte and Oreshe in Veles region, Smilevo in Bitola region, Slepce and Elovce in Prilep region, Kozjak in Kriva Palanka region, as in Krusevo, where they settled with the Vlachs. In Aegean Makedonia have been mostly settled in Kostur region, and hence moved to Tikvesh, Ovce Pole, Radovish, Strumica, Petrich, while Bulgarian migrants are found throughout the whole territory. In all areas where Miak migrated, we could appreciate the strong development of crafts, especially those who they knew – building, fretwork and icon-painting.
1. MIAK MIGRATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TRADITIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF MACEDONIA
The influence of the migration and migrant workers of Miak in the development of crafts in the southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula, has processed more authors. In order to get a full picture of their activity we will process individually all the centers of their activity.
In Veles region is well known activity of Miak masters – builders. In the second half of XVIII century and the beginning of XIX century, is detect massive immigration of entire Miak families. They settled down in villages Papradishte and Oreshe, which are most suited to the characteristics of their birthplace. Among the resettled families is the family of the Siljan Renzovski from village Tresonche, one of the first famous masters who worked on the quarters of Emin-Aga.  In connection with the construction of these quarters, there are folk sayings, which emphasized the building skills of the Miaks masters who were specially invited for the construction of quarters. 
Masters of Veles used the most secret language which are called boshkachki and according to folk stories, the language was unknown before the advantage of Miak masters. The veritable initiators of the development of the building traditions in Veles finally settled Miaks, while the development of the house occurs in the interaction of experiences convey these craftsmen and local builders.
In the Ohrid and Struga region was known migration of Miaks from the region of Reka and from Debar. It is also well known fact, that whenever a representative object has been built, was called masters of Debar, and region of Reka. Thus on the building of the house Robevci worked Todor Petkov from village Gari and in the building of the seraglio of Xheladin Bey were called masters of the Reka region.
In the XIX century, in Bitola were developed crafts that somehow having to do with building, carpentry, stonemason, carving, painting crafts, while holders of these craft activities were migrant workers from Debar region, and Miaks and Vlachs from town Krushevo. In this region, through Turkish documents, was noted the work of masters from Debar. Among others mentioned master Nikola from Debar and his group. Since all building groups were founded in Bitola and Prespa region, most of them were groups from Smilevo and Krusevo and well known is that Smilevo was inhabited by Miaks and in Krusevo,  they constituted half the population.
The development of building tradition in the Kratovo and Kriva Palanka region, the most contributed migrations of the Reka region and Debar. It is known the village Kozjak in Kriva Palanka region where was settled Miaks.  According Jaranov main directions of the Miaks movement towards Kyustendil and Sofia, passed through this region. In addition, many famous masters of Debar and Reka region worked in this region.
In Skopje and its surroundings much appreciated and sought were groups of Miak. According to the statements of Jovan Hadzi Vasiljevic, in this region master builders were mainly Miaks.
In Tetovo region, mostly built Miaks, also and always were invited for the building of the most representative buildings. Thus on the building of Tetovo quarters, worked Nestor Alexiev with his father. 
According to data provided by Aneta Svetieva, the material on the history of the Makedonian people, we can conclude that exists a significant number of masters and their groups in Makedonia, especially in the Miak region, and the places where Miaks settled. Thus we learn that the most masters and groups in 1834 were from Miak region, that was group of Rekalii carpenters, group of Costa Trpche, group of Marko, group of Nicolas Gjorgjev, a group of Sekula, group of Bozho and others, a total of 100 people. Followed data for the groups that they are from the Smilevo, Krusevo, Ohrid, Kriva Palanka and others, i.e. only the regions where Miak families had migrated. Also talking about master Haji Nikola Zivkovic, whose official employ as superintendent of public buildings in 1834 have been beneficial to the masters of Makedonia.
2. MIAK MIGRATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TRADITIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF SERBIA
In his book Traveling through old Serbia (1878-1880), from the research terrain, Popovich told us that most master masons who worked on the territory of Serbia were from Makedonia. They were particularly active in building a city house, and were known as builders “Debarlii.” From an early age learned craft, when with their fathers and other masters leaving their birthplace and migrate for work. According to this author Makedonians, masters form Debar, were the most respected masters of masonry, carpentry and painting works. At this author we find data for the main builder for the Prince Milos – Hadji Nikola Zivkovic from Makedonia, known as Hadji Neimar.
Milenko Filipovich said that working groups which were founded in Metohija were from Debar and Strushki Drimkol. In this book was mentioned Dame Andrein, son of master Andrea Damjanov, who worked at the seminary and a church in Prizren, and church in Kosovska Mitrovica, and church in Gnjilane was built by Miak George Novak Dzhongar.  The author emphasizes: “until recently in Peshtar (Sandzak) came, masters from Debar to build the houses.”
For building activity of master Andrea Damjanov from village Papradishte and origin from village Tresonche is written by multiple authors. One of the latest reviews of his mastery gives Miodrag Jovanovich: “one of them Andreja Damjanov seriously defied to the development of circumstances and managed to take over the building of churches, where foreign trained architects had suppressed the builders of the old kind, too.“ For the church he built in Smederevo, Jovanovich quoted Shkalamer: “one of the first church buildings which means milestone in Serbian architecture. Damjanov in Smederevo confirmed his great skill in constructing a truly monumental buildings compiling overtaked building characteristics of different eras, which were not considered from the architectural uneducated members of the municipality, on the base of some similarities with Manasia, to accept the church as very different Baroque-Klasicistic, “such as Felix Kanic that comparing it with other churches in Serbia declares: “new church in Smederevo, known in Serbia and far away, besides its flaws, no doubt is the best among the new churches in Serbia.
Outside Makedonia Andreja Damjanov has built churches in Sarajevo, Mostar, Nish and mentioned church in Smederevo. Andreja Damjanov comes from Miak builders family. His grandfather is Siljan Renzovski that was mentioned in the construction of Veles-quarters of Emin Aga. For him is known data, that his group worked in Thrace, Edirne and Istanbul.  Sons of Siljan, Jankula and Stephen, were also builders and worked in Thessaloniki, Drama, Kavala, Serres and Izmir. 
For Miak builders in the Serbia writes Peter Kostich. He reports that the master builders of the church of St George in Prizren in 1856, were from the Reka region. Branislav Kojic emphasize that: “… in Serbia builders of urban houses came from Makedonia,”  and for Ichko’s house … the name of the builder – “neimar,” certainly must be one of the number of masters at that time were building better houses in Makedonia … it can be concluded after the great similarity of that buildings with the appropriate type of Makedonia.” 
3. MIAK MIGRATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TRADITIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF GREECE
Nikos Micopulos noticed the work of Miak masters in Greece. He wrote: “People are returning from working abroad to Siatista wanted to build houses in a way that built the masters of Western Makedonia, Epirus and Debar. These builders and free masonry traveled far on south even to the Peloponnese, on the north to the Danube and on the east in Asia Minor. These builders have many different architectural solutions that suited the requirements of owners, although variations were performed on generally similar basic forms.” On the other hand, materials and construction methods were the same throughout the territory to which they moved. The wishes of the owners can be occasionally different. Such is the case of the space for this research in Siatista. Also Filipides Dimitri noted that for the building of houses in the whole territory of Aegean Makedonia and some other places in Greece, the most propounded the groups, so the individuals too, from mountainous parts of western Makedonia. For the places where masonry is mainly occupation of the population in Kastoria, writes Hadji Vasiljevich for village Koreshcha, Simovski write about villages Kosinec, Starichani and Sensko and Raptis for the village Kalevishta. Also, in these villages lived the most families migrated from Miak region.
4. MIAK MIGRATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TRADITIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF ROMANIA
For the activity of Miak masters in Romania we have data from the author Vasil Knchov, which spoke for the groups of builders of Reka region and Debar, which regularly went to work in these regions. The famous Makedonian revivalist George Pulevski named itself as an architect, because even as a child went with his father to work in Romania, in the town Turnu Mogurel, where he studied building craft. In Romanian documents can be found names of many masters from Makedonia, who worked there, especially in the city Brailovo. The author Ionescu noted that the influence of these masters – builders of Makedonia were very large, and that is why the traditional house from the XIX century in Romania bore the general features of the national house of Makedonia. 
5. MIAK MIGRATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BUILDING TRADITIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF BULGARIA
Activities of master builders and groups in Bulgaria must be reviewed comprehensively. Besides master builders and groups working as migrant workers, almost on the entire territory of Bulgaria, starting from the XV century, whole families settlers migrate from the mountain regions of western Makedonia. Their influence on the development of building, carving and icon-painting, noticed several authors, such as Kozhuharov, Ivanchev, Berbenliev and Patchev, Daskalov, Arbaliev and Jaranov.
For the migration of Makedonians in Bulgaria, the most comprehensive report gave the author Jaranov. Common name for migrants from Western Makedonia in Bulgaria was “Arnauts.” The author gives two assumptions about the naming of the migrants. The first is that the whole region of western Makedonia from XV to XIX century named Arnautluk, data that is not confirmed in the written sources of the time, and second that the first settlers in Bulgaria was the Makedonians, which have inhabited the territory of present Albania, the areas Colonia, Opara, Korcha, Elbasan, Mati, Chermenika, Golo Brdo, after which they received the name Arnaut, and because of this all the later migrated people of Makedonia was recognized with this name. The first known moves occurred at the end of the XV and the early XVI century, around Veliko Tarnovo – villages Leskovche, Dolna and Sredna Rakovica and Pliska. Only village Arbanassi rose cultural and economic, which today is known as the village of Arbanas’s. During the same period have settlers in Plovdiv region, in the villages Kara-Agach and Belishtica in Razgrad region in the village of Kara-Arnauts. Throughout the XVII century there were settlers in Tatar Pazardzhik, in villages Sestrimo and Akandzhievo in Stara Zagora in villages Arnauts, Pstren, Kravino and Razjakani and in Lovech villages Radjuvene, Goznica and Katunec. In the first half of XVIII century, there were settlers into the Gorna Dzumaja village Gradevo in the villages Gorno Draglishte and Banja in Razlog in the village Voden in Ehlovo in Beli Osm in Trojan as well as Elhovo. Sixties of XVIII century mark migrations in Bracigovo in villages Crncha, Petelnica and Eli-Dere, in Melnik villages Vranje and Debren and in the village Skrebatno and Goleshevo in Nevrokop. Except in these places there are settlers in the towns of Bansko Koprivshtica, Troyan and Treven in Bessarabia, for which there was assumption that was first settled in Varna and Provadia, from where they continued their migration to Bessarabia in villages Kozarsko, Perushtica, Ajdinevo and Krchim in the foothills of the Rhodope Mountains, and near Bratsigovo, village Kopilovci, Chiprovsko and Gorno-Draglishta, near Samokov. 
The influence that immigrants had performed on the local population Jaranov says: “immigrants shared many trades, such as stone cutting, building, icon painting, carving and more. All that open up more opportunities in economic life and art trades boosted the aesthetic taste of the local population, which had fallen into apathy. “ … Historically proven is the fact that most master builders went from Makedonia around the whole Balkan Peninsula … Most of the craftsmen which worked in Bulgaria in the region of Sliven came from Debar, Kostur and Krusevo, also ” writes Ivanchev. 
Berbenliev and Patchev in the book Master Builders from Bracigovo, said that “… the beginning of building activity of master buildiers from Bracigovo should search in Western Makedonia … they were master builders with a wealth of experience and emphasized art … are orientated towards Tatar Pazardzhik, Plovdiv and the surrounding villages, where they began to build houses, churches, mosques, bridges, towers and more. Their activities are spread and in the other parts of Balkan such as Romania and Constantinople.”
For the development of building schools in Bulgaria Asen Vasilev said: One of the most famous, in creative terms, architectural schools in our country in time of revival is the architectural school from Bracigovo, whose works are spread in many villages in the country “… who is the founder of this School is not known. Perhaps the founder of the school is one of the talented builders who moved from Kastoria and the mountainous region of Western Makedonia. According to Asen Vasilev some of the masters had already printed books and managements of architecture. Hence you can clearly see the desire for more knowledge and ambition for a creative approach. Founder of Kaloriferskata School is Anton Ch. Stanishev, who moved here from Debar, Makedonia” “Who is the founder of the building school of Razlovci is not exactly determined. It’s known only the names of some masters who play a significant role in it. Usta Veljan moved from the village. Osoj, Makedonia, in Bansko, and is the first known master of that school .. “
According Arbaliev in Bulgaria in this period actively created and acted three architectural schools – from Bracigovo, Trnovo and Odrin and for wood carving four schools – Kalofer, Razlog, Treven and Samokov. In this review he account the Makedonian architectural school and the Debar Woodcarving School also. He gave his view of the development of Makedonian woodcarving and architectural school and its influence on architecture in neighboring countries. For architectural school he wrote: The rise of national feeling, the rise of economic power and the culture of the “Bulgarian people” around the age of revival gave an excellent achievement in art and architecture in the western regions of Makedonia and especially in villages along the stream of river Gorna Reka (Radica) and the stream of river Mala Reka, which flows into it. It is a region with a rich architectural and artistic tradition whose development during the revival achieve a great perfection …. In the architecture of the Makedonian school were very strongly expressed relationships with national traditions, regarding to the incorporation of structural elements, and in shaping of architectural detail. Love for the tree found his worthy place in the building and decorating of many works of this school. But in this school were doing serious researches on the development of traditions and adapt to the needs of new life. As a result of the creative demands from the masters of this school of architecture in the church buildings were established significantly more monumental forms than those of traditional solutions. In forming the interiors they developed numerous innovations – bowler apses, blind dome, hanging arches, an accurate handrail as a means to increase the visual and artistic experience of the internal spaces. Without suspicion all of this signified for the basic impact on the development of architecture not only in Makedonia but also in neighboring regions, where were set creative contacts with masters of other schools. In view of the carving, for the wood carving Debar School, as this author calls it, said: Rich and versatile is the activity of Miak masters. They work on iconostasis and ceilings on the territory of the entire Balkan Peninsula. Some arrived even in Italy. How was established the Debar School, who is its founder, exactly, is not known. Perhaps the masters for the Athons or Zografos monastery was the first founders of the school. Maybe there were existed local traditions and activities were developed as a consequence of that. 
For more complete noticing in the information’s concerning the migration of Miaks in Bulgaria, according Jaranov and the origin and development of revival schools according Arbaliev, was made a map, in which graphically was entered data of Miaks migration in Bulgaria and registered builders and woodcarving schools. From the enclosed map is evident that one or more centuries before the appearance of every one revival school individually, in the places of origin, and their immediate surroundings, as in the places where were the main activity in schools, was recorded the migration of families from Miak region.
Thus, in Veliko Trnovo, where was developed architectural school Miaks moved in the XV and XVI century, Treven, where was developed architectural and carving school there was settlers in XVIII century. Here should be emphasized the impact of the settlers in the surrounding cities Razgrad, Lovech and Troyan, also. In Bratsigovo with remarkably developed architectural school, there were settlers in the XVII and the XVIII century, as in surrounding cities Pazardzhik, in the XVI and in Plovdiv in the XVII century, also. The same happens with wood carving schools in Bulgaria. In the city Samokov, where was developed woodcarving school had settlers in the XVIII century, and in a Razlog’s woodcarving school had settlers since the XVII century. Here it should be noted that starting from the XV century, in the vicinity of these cities, there was a permanent immigration of Miaks, especially in the cities Gorna Dzumaja, Bansko, Melnik and Nevrokop. For the carving school from the Kalofer, primary was the Miak families constant immigration in the surrounding towns Koprivshchica, Karlovo and Stara Zagora, continually, from the XV century. The exception is only the school from Edirne, which developed in a quite different way from others. Nevertheless, in Edirne proximity there were Miaks settlers, into the towns of Elhovo and Svilengrad, in the XVII century. In the beginning, the features and the activities of this school, the most precise data gives the author Arbaliev:  The emergence and development of architectural school from Edirne is affiliated with one of the largest cities in the Ottoman Empire, Edirne, which was the second largest city after Istanbul. Intensive … development of Edirne as a commercial and shopping center has attracted attention of many masters of the mountain regions of the Balkan Peninsula …. For a short time he became a center of developed architecture and exchange of experiences among newcomers masters – builders, woodcutters and painters. In the architecture of Edirne meet building and artistic traditions of many places that are mutually enriched, developed and perfected. Obtained vast experience in the building of Edirne, plays an important role in the progress of building a number of other cities. Many of the masters, who exchanged a wealth of experience between them and received knowledge of his colleagues, went again in their native places, where they occupied with a significantly more intensive architecture. The experience was quickly adopted by gifted artists. In that creative atmosphere appeared talents of many folk artists, based on experience, but not only on the lifeblood of national traditions, but also on knowingly discovered new ideas for development of these traditions and their skillful adaptation to the needs of new life.
Fig. 1 Map of Bulgaria, with marked places of Miaks migrations and places of the development of the revival schools
From all these facts we can conclude that it is evident influence of the Miak masters in the establishment and development of the revival architecture and art on the south parts of the Balkan Peninsula. The testimony of those facts is the direct state of researchers of the traditional architecture on the Balkan Peninsula, which were cited and indirect data have been cited for the migration Miaks in Bulgaria and their direct impact on the development of building and art crafts. All of these authors with unambiguous strength highlighted the exceptional influence they have Miak builders in the development of architecture and building craft on the Balkan Peninsula. This effect occurs at two levels.
The first level concerns their work, as migrants. Oorganized in groups– “tajfas” they travelled in all parts of Balkan Peninsula that were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire There was a great demand for their services, especially for the building of houses, churches and other public and representative buildings. As the great masters were required everywhere, but specially invited for the building of representative objects. On this way, they were transferred their experience in building houses to the entire territory of the Southern Balkans. However, they also managed to develop their own specific type of houses. They have shown apparent skills in the adjustment of their experience to various climates, characteristics of the terrain and environment, and traditions and characteristics of the site. Especially respected the aesthetic and the organizational requirements of the owners, but in even greater measure they were shaped. Responding always with a different approach, formed a signature matrix of the given place, similar to the archetypal, that with very few modifications had satisfied the widely established criteria of quality housing.
The second level of influence, which in essence is much stronger, their migrations, starting from the XV century and perhaps earlier. Their life in the new region starts by building objects, that largely formed and developed the aesthetic taste of the local population. So they start to build objects that satisfied much higher standard. New structures and the experiences implemented by gifted and skillful masters had initiated the development of the construction trade and other decorative crafts, which were adopted and further evolved by the local population. Especially intense were in Bulgaria of the activities several workshops that experienced their rise in the XVIII century. There is evidence concerning all Bulgarian areas that several families had immigrated half a century earlier, that initiating the development of the construction workshop.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Employment: 1986-present day: St. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Architecture, Skopje Macedonia
Education: Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Architecture, Skopje Macedonia, Doctor of Technics, 2011; Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Architecture, Skopje Macedonia, Master of Science, Architecture and Urbanism, 1995; 1980/85; Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Architecture, Skopje Macedonia, studies and degree as an engineer architect (awarded as a student of the year 1985 by Frank Harphord Maning Fond and the Sts. Cyril and Methodius University) 1976/80; High School ORCE NIKOLOV Skopje and Secondary Music School MBUC Skopje
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 наводници од авторот
 Арбалиев, Г., Строителни и худоЖествени традиции на БЬлгарската архитектура, стр.103 – 164
 Яранов, Д., ПРЕСЕЛНИЧЕСКО ДВИЖЕНИЕ НА БЬЛГАРИ ОТ МАКЕДОНИЯ И АЛБАНИЯ КЬМЬ ИЗТОЧНИТЕ БЛГАРСКИ ЗЕМИ ПРЕЗ XVI ДО XIX ВЕК, стр. 63-118
 Арбалиев, Г., Исто, стр.103 – 164
 Арбалиев, Г., Исто, стр.103 – 164